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Safety Research Programme: Annexure V
SAFETY RESEARCH PROGRAMMES

Annexure V
AREAS OF INTEREST TO AERB


The studies in some areas are of special interest to AERB. Some such areas and the preferred topics under these areas are indicated in the following list.
 

I.

Industrial Applications of Radiation

(i)

R&D aimed at developing improved techniques to obtain greater safety in industrial radiography; application of radioisotope sources for gauging systems; product counting; tracer methods; fire detection; irradiation for preservation/disinfection. Laboratory and large scale irradiators for radiation processing.

  (ii)

Nuclear techniques in pollution monitoring.


 
II.

Medical Applications of Radiation

(i)

R&D aimed at developing improved techniques to obtain greater safety in diagnostic radiology & imaging techniques, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine.


 
III.

Radiobiology/Radiation DosimetrylRadiation Protection

(i)

Investigations on low dose, dose rate effects, dosimetry.

  (ii)

Population surveys on levels and effects of natural radiation environments.

  (iii)

Studies on/surveys for assessment of exposure levels due to radiation and radionuclides in the environment, studies to determine transfer coefficients for radioactive iodine from pasture to cow to milk and for caesium from pasture to meat.

  (iv)

Anthropometric surveys for compilation of data on Indian Standard Man.

  (v)

Development of radiation monitoring/measuring equipment and radiation protection accessories.

  (vi)

Development and standardisation of protective apparel such as ventilated frog suits.

  (vii)

Development of battery operated air samplers.


 
IV.

Applied Chemistry in Nuclear Industry

(i)

Development of instrumentation for monitoring conventional pollutants such as H2S.

  (ii)

Development of iodine filter system with provisions for cooling.

  (iii)

Studies relating to determination of source term in severe accident situations, namely chemical speciation, release from fuel, aerosol formation and transport behaviour of fission products (in particular iodine) and associated aerosols in containment atmosphere; transport, distribution and reactions of hydrogen in containment atmosphere and development of catalytic methods for controlling the reaction rate.

  (iv)

Studies relating to obtaining early warning about fires through methods based on detection of vapour released during combustion of table sheaths, paints and other substances.

  (v)

Studies on development of more effective and environment-friendly extinguishers in case of fires in general and with special reference to fires involving liquid sodium.

  (vi)

Development of techniques for chemical removal of radioactive contamination on exposed surfaces of reactor components/primary heat transport system.


 
V.

Techniques for radioactive waste management

(i)

Laboratory and field investigations on chemical behaviour of radioactive wastes in ground water, determination of the rates of movement and development of models to allow prediction of waste dispersion/movement.

  (ii)

Development of ultra filtration techniques for treatment of alpha wastes containing colloidal particles.

  (iii)

Development of methods for treatment and immobilisation of liquia wastes in suitable solid matrices, determination of leaching rates for wastes so fixed.

  (iv)

Theoretical and field studies on atmospheric dispersion and ground deposition of aerosols under different weather conditions, in diverse terrain; development of models for prediction of atmospheric concentrations and extent of ground deposition.

  (v)

Development of methods for control of spread of ground deposits of radioactive substances through quick drying polymer films.


 
VI.

Applied MetallurgylRadiometallurgy

(i)

Studies on causes of failure of reactor components such as pressure tubes and calandria tubes in pressurised water reactors; application of methods based on fracture mechanics for failure prediction.

  (ii)

Studies on the long term influence of neutron radiation on properties of structural materials with particular reference to fast reactors.

  (iii)

Corrosion behaviour of steam generator materials.

  (iv)

Studies on life extension measures for safety related components of nuclear power plants.

  (v)

Studies on long-term operational integrity of containment vessel.


 
VII.

 Thermal HydraulicslFluid Structure Interactions

(i)

Analysis of events involving failure in the primary coolant system.

  (ii)

Analysis of events involving steam line / feedline break in the secondary coolant system.

  (iii)

Analysis of the effectiveness of the suppression pool in a loss of coolant accident scenario.

  (iv)

Heat transfer analysis applicable to post dry out period.

  (v)

Behaviour of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor core under severe accident conditions

  (vi)

Modelling of underground mine ventilation system.

  (vii)

Pump behaviour under two phase flow conditions.

  (viii)

Studies on vortex formation in emergency core cooling system accumulators.

  (ix)

Evaluation of necessary and sufficient conditions for explosive thermal interactions between molten materials and liquids.

  (x)

Theoretical and model studies on propagation of pressure waves through fluid media and determination of effect on structures.


 
VIII.

Civil and Structural Engineering

(i)

Assessment of structural behaviour of RCC containment structures subjected to internal pressure loading (including beyond design basis); evaluation of responses of RCC structure to missile impacts, by aircraft crash and to impacts of internal missiles generated by turbine failure; study of factors influencing leak rates through concrete containment structures.

  (ii)

Development of liquid alkali metal resistant concretes.


 
IX.

Safety Evaluation Methodology

(i)

Generation of failure data for electrical, electronic and process system components for purposes of reliability assessment.

  (ii)

Model development for applications to probabilistic safety assessment.

  (iii)

Development of models for human reliability analysis (HRA) for integration with probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); characterisation of operator errors of commission and omission arising from misdiagnosis and other relevant factors for the purpose of HRA; supporting data based on accidents that have occurred in large facilities.


 
X.

Applications of computers and appliances

(i)

Development of expert systems as operator aids in safety surveillance and operation of nuclear plants.

  (ii)

Development of robotic techniques for a variety of unmanned operations such as inspection of structures, material welding, radiation survey, application of protective coatings, chemical decontamination etc.